A place where visitors can create, share, and connect with each other around content. Create means that visitors contribute their own ideas, objects, and creative expression to the institution and to each other. Share means that people discuss, take home, remix, and redistribute both what they see and what they make during their visit. Connect means that visitors socialize with other people — staff and visitors — who share their particular interests. Around content means that visitors' conversations and creations focus on the evidence, objects, and ideas most important to the institution in question.
In this context of involvement, interdisciplinarity and openness, this paper describes the case of the MuseumApp, a new mobile tool for heritage institutions. The paper explores:. Plate states that in the 20th century the western world has seen the rise of the themed walking route as a cultural product offered to tourists for consumption, enabling them to experience the urban and rural landscape as they purchase the tour.
These walks are best understood in the context of re-establishing our relationship to the past through the experience of place. And the act of walking as a first step in 'interacting' with the environment. Through the advent of locative media, this experience can be further enhanced. As experiencing a city is an infinitely personal and dynamic process, the cultural walk rather than the historical walk can be considered a personal mapping of the city.
Left to our own devices we all notice different things, meet different people, etc. But the identity of the city is also dynamic as we experience it over and over again Huyssen, By marking physical spots in the urban landscape as the places where recent formative historic events happened, museums memorialize explicitly the city's identity — a practice which could and should be dynamic and flow the way the city's identity is constantly evolving, challenged and adjusted.
But often museum practice does not allow on-the-fly or bottom-up adjustments, due to technical or logistic restrictions that prevent published tours from being updated and altered easily. Experiencing the city's identity — feeling where 'it' happened, turning facts into experiences — can help in understanding the diversity of this complex identity. Although the city shows "a past that is not our own, we can relate to it as if it was our own past.
This allows for the anchoring of one's self in the social past and its urban spaces and so to acquire a sense of identity, continuity and belonging" Plate, Simon refers to this process as the idea that visitors construct their own meaning from cultural experiences. And by our engaging in a dialogue — by giving back our immediate reflections to the creators of the tour — the authors start to understand our take on things, the relevance of the spot to our current life, our concerns.
The Amsterdam Museum will be the launching customer of the MuseumApp, after which the platform will be open to all cultural organizations. The Amsterdam Museum App will feature four interactive routes exploring the fundamental aspects of the city of Amsterdam: the creative, the entrepreneurial, the tolerant and the civic agency; connecting the outside experience closely to the narrative of the new permanent indoor exhibition Amsterdam DNA opening May The Amsterdam Museum reflects the tolerance, enterprising spirit and individuality of the city.
The objective of the Amsterdam Museum in this project is to involve a wider audience in the history of Amsterdam. The museum wants to explore how to relate to new audiences and find new ways to continue the conversation. In this context, the relationship between the history of Amsterdam and the quotidian world of the audience is interesting.
Some assumptions underlying the project are the idea that stories about your neighborhood strengthen your connection to it, and the idea that lifting the discontinuity between the indoors of the exhibition and the outdoors of the museum often the same, or at least related narratively can help in making the stories accessible and relatable. The museum expects that when people come into contact with heritage in their daily environment, history will speak to the imagination and give the locations more meaning.
From the central idea 'I make history', the Amsterdam Museum, the city of Amsterdam and other interested parties feel that they themselves help to build the history of Amsterdam and our future heritage. The Amsterdam Museum has ample experience in connecting to diverse audiences on-site and through Web-based applications and is one of the fore-runners in the heritage domain in building expertise on location-based services. The museum is one of the first to make its collection freely available online.
The foundation was established in and continues to empower people to both express themselves and connect to other people. One of the key subjects that Waag Society has researched is the use of locations, and more recently, modern mobile phones, both in education and cultural heritage. This research began in with Amsterdam Realtime, with users drawing a real-time map of Amsterdam by tracing their routes with a GPS. Amsterdam Realtime was a collaboration with artist Esther Polak and sparked several location-based projects. A number of projects are described in the paper "Out there: connecting people, places and stories" Van Dijk, Kerstens, Kresin.
As many museums are looking into the possibility of creating outdoor tours, the Amsterdam Museum and Waag Society decided to explore the possibilities of creating one shared app for museum tours, the MuseumApp. The underlying ambition is to make sure the development of such new tools and systems is 'culture smart' and in balance with how 'mobile ready' cultural audiences are.
The MuseumApp has two intended audiences: end users the cultural audience and museum professionals. The app should be easy to use for the end-user, offer one clear market place to encounter the different cultural tours and content offerings from different museums, but also offer ease-of-use in content creation and facilitation for the museum professional who is not necessarily an expert on media.
Cultural funder DOEN, who contributed financially to the product, added the target that participating should be easy for museums and at reasonable cost. The MuseumApp can be considered a white-label application — a term mainly used in the financial sector where the provider of the service purchases a fully supported product from another source, then applies its own brand and identity to it, and sells it as its own product — in which museums can create and publish their own offerings and add elements of their own visual identity, and then communicate through their own channels, but also through the joint MuseumApp channels.
Through using an existing platform and opening it up to a large user audience, the license fees can remain modest. The MuseumApp builds on the existing software platform 7scenes. This makes it stable and offers advantages of earlier investment payoff and future developments of the platform. These authoring tools make production more flexible, and production costs can be lower. The platform currently supports iPhone and Android smartphones — phones steadily growing in popularity Techcrunch, The platform has been developed and used by Waag Society since Content- and functionality-wise the application creates new connections between the collection of the museum and the experience of the city, with a focus more intent on presenting the diversity of the city's identity than a nostalgic gaze, and plenty of possibilities to create interactions between application and end-users.
Based on the visitor types presented by Falck , the project partners focus most on the explorers — who want to experience new things, from interesting angles — and the facilitators — the more social visitors. The MuseumApp as-is offers participants content media files: text, image, video or audio , tasks and queries to fulfill, the opportunity to dialogue by adding notes to a location or uploading a photo, and the opportunity to share experiences through social media. The traditional passive approach is abandoned, and the creative ability of the public is actively targeted in the city tours.
These are short, temporary periods when curators, educators, and librarians of Amsterdam Museum, in close collaboration with technical and creative professionals of the Waag Society, explore new interaction strategies in relation to heritage. This method originated from Waag Society's Creative Research approach.
The format provides the heritage professionals with direct knowledge, experience, and possibilities to unlock innovative content, and the technical professionals with the skills and limitations of an audience.
The end-users are actively involved in the development process by integrating public pilots, in which new forms of interaction and access are tested. This ensures that results are sustainable and in keeping with the needs of the users. The experiences of the labs are shared publicly via the blog www. A large number of the Lab participants were prototyping on the fly, researching content, testing and adjusting storylines, and exploring the route themselves.
The 7scenes platform was used to quickly map out certain routes in the city. Locations were chosen based on what they contribute to the understanding of the city's identity, looking for possibilities to turn facts into experiences, using elements of quotidian life as it was lived, and its connections to current life, choosing items of story, chronology and convenience to construct a pleasant walk.
As a result, end-users were offered a one-and-a-half-hour route on the theme of tolerance through diverse neighborhoods, listening to stories from two fictional reporters covering recent and historic events, mixed with existing media items e. Within the Labs the end-users take a central place. As part of the first Lab, two small-scale user tests were held on the first pilot route on the theme of Tolerance eight external users.
From an artist's point of view we trace how the interaction with the community changes us and our art.
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We discuss the findings with the academic field and society in general in talks, workshops and papers. As a performer I come from a yet another context and peer group, namely that of the contemporary music scene. The contemporary music scene differs slightly in each country according to cultural politics and historical background; it influences me while composing and when offering the show to festival promoters.
We view our arts practice and research as performative, meaning that the artwork as well as the creative process will modify how we and possibly our participating community understand and reflect the world; thus it will do something to us, it will perform us and we will perform through it coming from a material to an immaterial level.
Moreover, artistic practices are always embedded in context; they are not detached from society or time. What are the artworks we are referring to? It forms one of the central artworks. Here the interaction between all stakeholders community including the TransCoding team stands in the foreground. Participation is open to everybody, with limited and only occasional curation by the TransCoding team.
The different online channels serve as accesses to the project for our worldwide community, as communication platforms and communal online exhibition spaces for mini artworks of all stakeholders. It serves also as an artistic documentary of the interaction between the TransCoding team and its community. We consider it a common contextual art artifact which reveals the connections between TransCoding What if' s art works and the conditions of their production. It is created by myself as the main artist, and incorporates community contributions. The participation mode for Slices of Life is as follows: In regular intervals we call for community contributions to gather material for the show via our social media channels.
We let community members decide how to approach the calls and which agency to follow: some get creative for themselves and out of interest for the call; others enter an intersubjective exchange with us and consciously contribute to the multimedia show. The material we get in form of photos, texts, sounds or videos is usually quite different from what we had in our mind when we formulated the calls.
The community interprets the calls in a way that meets their personal interest, not necessarily the demands of the artwork. Therefore, the second step is on the one hand to curate the material and choose what might fit the show, and on the other hand to adjust concept, content and aesthetics of Slices of Life to the community material. Subsequently I create a part of the show that incorporates the material of a given call and feed it back in the loop of communication via our Youtube, Soundcloud, blogs Tumblr and Wordpress and Facebook channels. All participants are consulted before I use their contributions and are clearly acknowledged.
The influence of the community is strong, although not as palpable as in the other works. It shows for example in the fact that since the first sketches in Slices of Life has turned from a contemporary art music-centered work based on abstract symbolism around the Greek-Roman idea of the four temperaments sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic into a narrative multimedia performance that is based on a string of real and invented stories by the community, incorporates elements of popular music and takes videos and images contributed by individual members as the basis for the video production.
With the interactive audiovisual installation Read me I provide a technological setting and a conceptual frame that can be filled with the personalized content of individual community members. Here the development of the artistic content can be entirely authored by a single community member.
In the following subchapter I describe how we approach this project from a participatory point of view, elaborating on the strategies employed. In general, we invite our community to creatively, qualitatively and meaningfully participate in different ways. They co-shape the participatory culture we initiate by means of communication, collaboration and through interpreting it in their own way. We grant at least four categories of community-authority in different creative settings:. We allow concrete decision-making power in the creative process of our artwork. Community members may have -in the extreme case- even the ultimate say over the content.
Case study 3. Read me, analysed in detail with regard to the power of single community members. We use original raw material sound, text, video, image contributed by the community in the artwork and frame it clearly and recognizable. However, we retain the power to decide in which way we use it and how it is framed.
How the community reacts to our calls for contributions strongly influences and affects the aesthetic of our artwork and the actual process of creation. What if we had wings? The community inspires and influences the artwork, for instance through the aesthetics of their contributions, through their choice of topics in our calls for entry and through their communication with us on the social media channels a topic I only mention but will not tackle in detail in this paper.
The community uses our material to make their own art Case study 3. SoundCloud, described in a general overview. When we began the project, we engaged via social media, a form of communication important in developing identities. Thus, we ensconce our topic "identity" as the focus of the artwork and our social media presence. Additionally, the key features of web 2. Users are empowered to shape their medial reality 7 key features of web 2. Our contents were made available to share, reuse, distribute and edit as a sign of basic trust.
Edited by Sheila Whiteley and Shara Rambarran
A wide dissemination and dispersion allows for content delivery via multiple channels including file sharing and permalinks. Our community had a certain amount of authority from the onset. An important step was to locate our project's position with regard to the concept of participatory culture. Referring to philosopher and sociologist Habermas, he claims that there are four criteria for a sphere of civil openness: "Access to it is principally open, their members are completely equal, the choice of topic is entirely open and the circle of potential participants is open".
However, our core target group is an internet-literate young audience of digital natives. Its members are interested in creatively expressing themselves, are coming from popular culture, and wouldn't necessarily attend classical contemporary multimedia performances. They are what arts marketing expert Keith Diggle describes as the in a first instance "unavailable audience:" non-traditional visitors of an organisation's concert who may nevertheless be reached in new ways.
Diggle, , p. Still, contributions by participants outside the target group are equally welcome. The reach of the project is wide. In the year we reached visitors of countries with almost 10 views on the blog alone Fig. Here the participants have the possibility to:. Supply a link comment section of Wordpress or Facebook. Contribute with text Wordpress, Facebook, twitter. Upload a photo tumblr, Facebook, instagram, twitter. Film a video. Create own music SoundCloud. Remix the sound samples we provide with own music SoundCloud.
Download mute video, score the music, re-upload on YouTube. Create own individual artwork that includes elements of all of the above. In our project, the research team drives the participative and creative process; the initial choice of topic for the overall project, "identity," was given by us. Additionally we determined three further blog categories "Art we love", "You, us and the project", and "Making of" in which we a introduce our audience to contemporary art we feel close to, b feature the participation of the community and c give insight in the evolving artwork Slices of Life.
We shape the "calls for entry" that ask for contributions which later may or may not be woven into the overall artwork. Participants are equal amongst themselves but they follow the topic and the calls set out by the team. We provide different platforms on which those contributions are featured regardless of whether we will interweave them into Slices of Life. The way a contributor approaches the topic is free and amongst others community power lies in accepting a call or refusing to participate. Some of the calls took on a creative life outside of the immediate framework of the central artistic work in form of compositions made by community members with our material, stories that have been extended and material that has been used for collaborations outside of our community Fig.
Museum consultant and scholar Sabine Jank talks about the limitations of participation when she addresses participation as a utopian idea, and discusses the feasibility of participation in her article "Strategien der Partizipation" [Strategies of Participation]" Jank She states that a "participatory public" is generally seen as a utopian idea, because of its multiple perspectives and congenial composition that goes along with a breakup of the traditional production of knowledge.
The participatory aspect of TransCoding What if? To paraphrase Jank, the project raises questions of power constellations, objective knowledge and access to it , unrestricted communication, open, critical dialogue and the dissolution of traditional practices, as well as public access and the congenial inclusion of outsiders Jank , In our project, the term "outsider" refers to members of our target group who originally come from popular culture and whom we aim to integrate in our process of creation.
In Chapter 3: Case Studies, I will address different perspectives on and possible limitations of participation. However, to round off the description of context in which this project is situated, I first specify the artistic and aesthetic field of TransCoding What if?. The Artistic Context. Bishop , 1 and 3. Instead we deliver the framework for an arts project and produce situations in which our community can be creative together with us or independently from us, express their voice and enter into discourse.
The artistic and aesthetic field in which our project is contextualized is classical-contemporary, music-based multimedia art. In this project we are concerned with through-composed electro-acoustic multimedia music with a performer. Within this field only very little participatory art can be found, usually in audio art or soundscape art, some of which I will now present:.
The soundscape project stereopublic: crowdsourcing the quiet , devised, directed and composed by sound artist Jason Sweeney asked its participants to seek out quiet spaces in a city and share visual and audio impressions online. On request these recordings were turned into compositions:.
The project had documentary features, the participants contributed information and material but did not compose themselves. ORF Kunstradio embarks on a journey through the mountains and valleys of these acoustic landscapes. ORF musikprotokoll im steirischen herbst The project was concurrently participative and educative. Participants could either simply collect and contribute sounds or take it one step further, creating their own composition.
Some of these works were then featured at the musikprotokoll festival. In Walk that sound by Serbian artist Luka Ivanovic a. Lukataboy collects the material of which he creates a tape that is later broadcast via radio stations. The project has happening and documentary character. For his ongoing participatory project Blind Tapes Ivanovic invites four people to individually record ten minutes of playing their instrument, singing or talking on a 4-track cassette recorder. The recordings overlay each other. The people are unaware of the people who play before, or will play after them.
Ivanovic later sold a mix-down of the recordings under the name Blind Tape Quartets mentioning the individual participants. Ivanovic The only connection between the contributions is their being featured on the disquiet Junto SoundCloud and their individual engagement with the weekly topic. The idea is to use restraints as a springboard for creativity. The project encourages and gives incentives to compose, it offers a platform for exposure, discussion and reflection for the community, but it does not connect the participants through an overall artwork.
Within the field of participatory contemporary art music, I have not found a single work that takes participation, exchange between artist and community, the permeability of authority and the building of a community to a similar encompassing level as we do. Subsequently, I will talk about how we apply our methodology using case studies as a means to illustrate processes of creation, distribution of authority and the dissolution of traditional practices.
In this chapter, I would like to shed light on the following question: in which way, which quantity, and on which level do we afford our participatory community authority in the decision-making process of our joint creative work, and how does this affect the evolving meaning of artistic work for both the project artists and the community? Case Study — Read me — an Area of Success. I shall first analyse in detail the artwork Read me with regard to concept, mode of participation and the question of shared authority with individual community members.
Read me is an interactive audiovisual installation that can be personalised for individual community members of TransCoding What if. While I offer the original artistic idea and the conceptual and technical framework, individual community members are invited to personalise the installation for themselves by filling the framework with their own chosen texts, portrait, sounds or even compositions.
Accordingly, the afforded authority lies in the actual content: the material provided to turn the installation into a person's personalised artwork. The idea behind Read me is the following: Often our first impression of a person leads us to believe that we can grasp who this person is.
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It seems clear and obvious. The further away one is, the clearer the material will be at its limit, one soundtrack and one sentence visible on the projection. The closer we get, the more complex and layered the material will become. To personalise Read me for a community member, I try to get to know the person, preferably personally but if that is not possible, I try to make a connection online.
In the standard version, I subsequently ask the community members to send their portrait photographs along with texts that are close to their heart. For the installation, I overlay the image with a dark layer, so that the onlooker can only see the shadow of an image behind the overlay. One single sound layer is audible and one single sentence appears in the middle of the projection. The letters of the sentence take away the dark layer and the underlying portrait shimmers through. This symbolises the first strong impression we have from a person when we have the feeling to already clearly know who this person is.
Nevertheless, in reality we are usually still very much left in the dark Fig. Having met the same person more often, we get to know more layers of them and start to see more clearly. Accordingly, when the onlooker approaches the installation, further sentences appear and along with them more of the photograph becomes visible. The audio gets a second layer as well. Once the onlooker is very close, all layers of the music, and all layers of the text appear.
The amount of text almost covers the screen and uncovers the image. Now we can see the person in the picture behind much more clearly, yet the texts are not necessarily legible anymore, the content is more shrouded. The audio on the other hand reveals more characteristics of the person represented. The onlooker, sees more, learns more about the person but nevertheless knows him or her less clearly than in the beginning Fig.
In fact, it is probably the aspect of the project where a community member can exert the most extended creative influence. Several versions of Read me for individual community members have already been realised and there exists more demand for other implementations. You will find a playlist of the Read me installations on YouTube: bit. The videos trace the approach of an onlooker toward the installation.
Unfortunately, it is impossible for these two-dimensional videos to fully convey the playfulness inherent in the exhibition itself, which awakens curiosity through the placement of a tracking sensor, which triggers the installation to react based on a spectator's physical proximity to the artwork. I do this by looking at the categories of material they contribute and by assessing the degree of involvement of individual community members. Additionally, I briefly analyse the reasons why I consider the Read me iteration featuring Ricardo Tovar Mateus as especially successful.
Community Authority in the Creation of Read me. Figure 14 illustrates on which level x-axis and to which degree y-axis a community member has decision-making power when personalizing the audiovisual installation Read me please click on the image to enlarge it. The last column is derived of the arithmetic average the sum of the different categories of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the categories of material provided by each community member.
The modes of working for the installation range from what Nina Simons calls "contributory: the participant supplies content, the artist incorporates it in the artwork" to "collaborative: the participant and the artist are committed to deep partnership" to "co-creative: the artist is committed to supporting the needs and goals of the participant that align to the project and provides them with the necessary tool to accomplish the work" Simon , p.test3.expandit.io/linguistic-rivalries-tamil-migrants-and-anglo-franco-conflicts.php
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Up until now, five versions of Read me have been realised. Depending on their creative self-assessment respectively self-consciousness, and keenness to be involved, as well as their technological skills, the community members may supply one or all of the following categories of material for the installation: image, text, raw sound material, and a composed soundtrack.
I am aware that this eventually will lead to aesthetic frictions between community members and myself, which I might find difficult to overcome. Not everybody shares the same taste in music or text with me or vice versa. Community members might not like what I compose for them or might not find themselves represented in the sounds I chose. In the worst case we could mutually dislike what we jointly created.
In the instance of community member Maria Hippenfels [name changed by the author], to whom I will introduce you later, some of the possible frictions showed, but I am nevertheless happy with what we did and so is she. Coming back to the material that can be provided, I realised that to everybody the image had a high priority.
Only in two cases I had been offered a series of portrait photos to choose from which accordingly resulted in my assessing it as a lesser degree of authority. One of them was the prototype built for Clio Montrey. In her case, we still had to experiment with the kind of photo we needed for the installation.
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Text seems to be equally important to the community members. Again, only in the prototype for her I added a second text by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies to the one chosen by her. As I knew Clio personally it was my interpretation of Clio Montrey by which she feels to be adequately represented in the context of the artwork. From everybody except Alina Murzakhnova, a young Russian pianist, I got raw sound material to work with. The sound material that stems from the portrayed community members is usually very personal and adds to the individual and unique feel of each single installation.
In the case of Alina, she had no piano available to record sounds in situ when we met, and she herself had not enough technological experience and equipment to later provide me with sound material in a digitised form. The compositional process to put together the actual soundtrack affords the most technological and compositional experience from the community members, which is probably why there is a lesser amount of community decision-making involved. Again the prototype for Montrey is somewhat of an exception, since with her expertise she could have composed the soundtrack herself.
However, at that point in the installation's development, the framework and overall aesthetics of the installation had not yet been fully implemented. It was only in subsequent versions that the idea came up to offer the subjects the choice to create the soundtrack themselves. Gloria Guns is a young lawyer and pop musician from Canada. For Maria we recorded her voice and djembe improvisations. When composing the soundtrack for each of their installations, I had to deal with pre-composed elements, which were inherent in the material they had provided.
Therefore I assigned a percentage of authority to them over the composition of the soundtrack, although I actually composed it myself. There is only one person, who provided every element for the installation, resulting in a comprehensive contribution: Ricardo Tovar Mateus, a young composer and pop musician from Colombia. Why did it work so easily with Ricardo? First of all he fits perfectly into our target group: he is a bit over 30 years old, educated in "high art" but working in popular culture. He is technologically savvy and is a skilled composer.
Having contributed to two previous calls for entries since autumn , i. The individual contributions are clearly framed within the artwork, recognizable and acknowledged. Each installation has a unique feel to it while conveying an impression of the person we see and of what is dear to their heart. It captures an idea of the multitude of layers that make up their personality. What advantageous elements are there for both the participant and artist in setting up the installation in a participative manner?
First of all, there is individual value of empowerment: The installation explicitly empowers community members to express their own identities and to actively participate in the creative process. The conventional power structure changes; the commonly hierarchic relationship between artist and audience is being altered into one of permeability and mutual influence. There is a learning value for both the community member and the artist: the audience member who co-creates the installation is deeply drawn into the creative process and learns about new media art from the inside; for me as the artist the learning value lies in the variety of personalities I portray, the variety of material and topics that are offered to me, the possible frictions in taste and goal that I have to overcome and in the artistic challenges that evokes.
Last but not least, there exists the social value: the artwork is dedicated to the people who works with me on the installation, which strengthens both their creative power and their self esteem. Additionally the relationship between artist and its audience is strengthened far beyond the encounter in a museum or a concert hall as would more traditionally be the case in the new music scene.
In the following subchapter I outline possible areas of conflict that our project yields, analysing in detail the multimedia composition What if we had wings. This composition was originally intended to become a part of the multimedia show that is now called Slices of Life.
I will investigate from the perspective of the original arts team. To let the reader more clearly grasp the context and the complexity of the setting I will refer to the method of "thick description" as developed by ethnologist Clifford Geertz in The Interpretation of Cultures. Geertz Participatory archives, however, are not just about inviting our constituents to engage with archival institutions.
That is, if we are truly to embrace what Theimer has called Archives 2. For these very reasons, Heritage and Social Media is an invaluable tool for archivists. Giaccardi and her contributors provide sober- ing assessments of the benefits and risks of participatory approaches, and this volume emphasizes that social media have already produced new patterns of social interaction around heritage.
Rebecka T. Craig, Editor This collection was presented to Hugh Taylor by his colleagues to acknowledge the impact he had on archival writing and thought during a remarkable archival career. This classic features eleven eclectic essays honouring Hugh Taylor's intellectual legacy and builds upon his ideas.
Written by some of the foremost archival scholars, topics covered include appraisal, archival education, and the history of archives and records-keeping. ACA pp. Related Papers. Letting Go? By Rebecka Sheffield. The unbearable lightness of participating? Revisiting the discourses of 'participation' in archival literature. By Isto Huvila. Facebook Live as a Recordmaking Technology. Book Review: Heritage and Social Media. By Dirk vom Lehn. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
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